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High Temperature Alloys

Since 1970sí, Centro Sviluppo Materiali (CSM) S.p.A. has been developing a very large experience and fundamental know-how in the field of ferrous materials and special alloys for high temperature applications, in terms of physical metallurgy, alloy and metallurgical design, advanced microstructural characterisation through up-to-date metallographic and mechanical investigation techniques, through-process metallurgy and structural integrity.


More recently, the wide experience and knowledge of the main production routes and application conditions for power generation
and petrochemical plants has driven CSM towards even more demanding research efforts in the field of super alloys and non ferrous materials for applications on aircraft engines and their subsystems, and on materials for very high temperature regimes, including those for ultra high critical power generation units and new generation environmental-friendly combustion engines (i.e., for civil and/or military transport).
From the metallurgical point of view it means to further widen the pre-existing metallurgical culture addressed to understand the micromechanisms for creep and creep fatigue in order to carry out a their better modelisation, as an unavoidable step forwards the development of very top-edge ferritic, ferritic-martensitic and austenitic steels for pipes, tubes, sheet and forged components which are destined to work at 700÷750 °C and over, and the problem-solving actions to them related (e.g., failure analysis on damaged mechanics and structural parts).
The main background and expertise of CSM researchers in the field of “High Temperature Alloys Metallurgy” cover the following competence areas:
Metallurgical alloy design by in-house made models and commercial tools as THERMOCALC®, DICTRA®, JMAtPro®, MATCALC©, etc.,
“Green field” alloy development from laboratory heats (100kg Vacuum Inductive Melting - VIM and VAR/Pressure Electrical Slag Remelting (PESR), up to 250÷300 kg round ingots), thru by-products by hot/cold rolling at pilot mills and forming/forging machines, up to the industrial scale and in-field application (seamless pipes and tubes, forged components, flat and long products, weld joints),
Heat treatment design, through in-house (made) thermo-metallurgical models and Continuous Cooling Transformation (CCT), Time-Temperature-Transformation (TTT) and Time-Temperature-Precipitation (TTP) diagrams,
Heat treatment set-up and performing, in a wide range of temperatures and atmospheres,
Process simulation by commercial tools and in-house (made) models (e.g. rolling, forging, piercing, forming, heat treatment, casting). Both conventional casting techniques and Directional Solidified and Single Crystal are techniques available at CSM Pilot Plant Unit,
Mechanical and technological testing (small- and medium-scale): uniaxial tensile, toughness and impact toughness, hardness (up to 750°C), Low Cycle (LCF) and High Cycle Fatigue (HCF) (at conventional and high frequency regimes), Thermo Mechanical Fatigue (TMF), Fracture Mechanics, etc.
Microstructural analysis: Light Microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) with quantitative microanalysis (EDS, WDS) and Automatic Image Analyser (AIA), Orientation Image Microscopy (EBSD), Transmission Electron Microscopy with scanning equipment (TEM/STEM) and EDS+AIA-assisted, X-ray diffraction (at room and high temperature, up to 1450°C),
Surface analysis and scale investigation by Electron Spectroscopy Chemical Analysis (ESCA-XPS) and Glow Discharge Optical Emission Spectroscopy (GDOES) techniques,
Creep testing: from 400°C up to 1150°C with continuous strain measurements, Creep Crack Growth (CCG), facilities for creep test in vacuum and inert gases (Ar, Ne), development of novel creep procedures and techniques for special purposes and for model fitting and fine tuning,
Creep data assessment using ECCC (European Creep Collaborative Committee) procedures,
Creep strain model by coupled metallurgical-micromechanical in-house (made) models, fitted by conventional and non conventional in-house (made) experimental techniques,
Evaluation of thermal expansion coefficient vs. temperature by dilatometer, Tsolidus/liquidus by Differential Temperature Analysis (DTA) technique, Thermal Diffusivity,
Microstructural / evolution as a function of temperature/time/strain,
Residual life assessment,
Corrosion and oxidation (e.g. including steam and high temperature oxidation),
Tribological characterisation of materials and components, by thermal fatigue, rolling contact fatigue, friction and adhesion, wear (at room and high temperature up to 1200°C),
Development, realization and full characterisation of protective coatings by coating design and deposition techniques as Plasma Spray, High Velocity Oxy-Fuel (HVOF), Plasm-Transferred Arc (PTA), Physical Vapour Deposition (PVD), Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD), Detonation Gun, etc. including the development of metallic powders by Gas Atomization starting from mother alloys produced at CSM Steelshop, 
Realization of similar and dissimilar welds (e.g. by GTAW, SMAW, MAG, Laser, Friction Welding, etc.), support for Welding Procedure development, qualification and transfer to final customers. 
Since 1970s’ Centro Sviluppo Materiali SpA has participated to the most important European Projects for the development of high temperature materials such as VAMAS, BRITE, European Cooperation in the field of Scientific and Technical research (e.g. COST 501, 522, 536 – Alloy development for Critical Component of Environmental friendly Power planT - ACCEPT) and AD700. CSM is an active actor within European collaborative scientific and technical initiatives and one of the founders of the European Creep Collaborative Committee (ECCC).

High temperature alloys producers (e.g. steelmakers), transformers (e.g. Forgemaster), End-users (e.g. power generation plant
makers, aircraft industry) and any customers whose interests and business are in the field of high temperature alloys metallurgy can find at CSM a very high skilled international working team which, through a unique competence and research capacity, is able to supply a complete R&D and technological service for the design, characterisation and application of alloys on components for high temperature industry.

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