Cost and energy effective management of EAF with flexible charge material mix

AUTHOR/S: E. Malfa,V.Volponi, M. Scotto, P.Frittella (CSM) - B. Kleimt, R. Pierre (BFI), M.Dormann (CRM) - E. Filippini (FERALPI) - I. Kolm, B. Dettmer (Georgsmarienhütte), E. Sandberg (MEFOS) - A. Gustafsson (Ovako) - I. Unamuno (Sidenor) PAPER PRESENTED TO: RFCS - RFSR-CT-2007-00008 - (Flexcharge)


Methodology to manage the EAF charged with the variable materials mix guarantying the required steel quality, minimising the cost to produce crude steel and the environmental impact, having in mind the volatility of scrap quality-price ratio and the pressures arising from CO2 trading legislation.


Comprehensive data sets collected, historical and obtained by dedicated tests, at four different EAFs (one DC and three AC), together with results of test campaigns at laboratory scale (35 kg induction furnace and 1 ton EAF pilot plant) have been evaluated mainly by statistical methods to derive information on scrap properties like yield, chemical composition and specific meltdown energy requirements. Elaboration of these data by optimisation tools have allowed to set-up robust charge mix optimisers to determine the scrap mix to produce a given steel quality and quantity under minimum costs and energy consumption.


In parallel dynamic mass and energy balances have been adapted to DC and AC electrical arc furnaces, taking into account the measurement of the off-gas composition already available at the steel plant and the evaluation of off-gas mass flow rate and temperature at 4th hole obtained by virtual (SW) sensors developed in the project. The developed methodologies have been implemented on-site and on-line at the partners industrial EAFs to define:

  • the scrap mix for a specific tramp element target, having as constrain availability and costs;
  • an optimal operative practice taking into account different scrap mix and operationa constrains;
  • O/C injection control for each individual heat.

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